SOCIAL STUDIES CH. 5: ANCIENT CHINA
- To the ancient Chinese people, the dragon was a respected _____________________. Dragons were __________________________ beasts and brought ______________________________________.
- Dragons were believed to be responsible for the _________________ that made the fields _________________________.
- The Chinese also used the dragon to show the importance of their ____________________________.
II. THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT CHINA
- Ancient China covered a large area. The climate, soil, landforms, and waterways ____________________________________ depending on the region.
- The North China Plain is located in _________________________________. It is built up of soil deposits from the ____________________________.
- The North China Plain and its surrounding highlands, as well as far northern China, have only a brief but intense, ___________________
___________________________________caused by monsoon winds. However, the region does not get much ________________________ the rest of the year. As a result, the climate is very ______________________________.
- The climate in the south, in contrast, is _________________ and ___________. Monsoons from the South China Sea bring ______________________________ to southern China from ___________________________________________________. Light rain falls the ___________________________________________.
- ________________________barriers such as mountains and seas separated China from other lands. As a result, the Chinese had little knowledge of the civilizations of ______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________.
- China’s rivers overflowed their banks each _____________________________, bringing fresh, _________________________________________ to the land.
- China’s first farming villages developed along its _______________________.
- The ________________________________ is China’s longest river.
- The ____________________________ is the second longest river in China. It is also the ________________________________ river in the world. It is called the __________________ River because of the loess that its waters carry along.
- The Chinese people also call the Huang ________________________________. It brought life to the land, but it also took life away through _____________________________________________.
- To help control the flooding, early Chinese people built _______________ along the banks of the _________________________. As more loess settled to the bottom of the river, the __________________ of the river _______________. Eventually, the river rose high enough to ________________________________ the dikes, causing even more deadly ____________________________________.
III. EARLY CIVILIZATION IN CHINA
- Early farmers of the _______________________________________ probably were once ________________________________ who moved from place to place to hunt and gather food.
- Historians don’t know exactly when the first farming settlements developed in the _______________________________________, but it may have been as early as ______________________________ B.C.
- The ________________________________ dynasty was the first civilization in China. It probably arose sometime around _____________________ B.C.
- The _____________________ people built China’s first cities and produced some of the finest __________________________ works of ancient China.
- The ____________________ people also produced the first Chinese _________________________ system. Like Mesopotamia’s _____________________ and our own ______________________________, it could be used for different _____________________________. This was helpful for communication because China had many ________________________________ languages.
- About _____________ years after the founding of the ______________________ dynasty, a new group named the ______________________ emerged. They lived in the ____________________________ to the west of the Shang people.
- The territories of the __________________ and _________________ were side by side. Sometimes the two groups lived _________________________ and other times they fought over territory. Finally, the ___________________ conquered the _____________________ in _______________________ B.C.
- The ____________________ dynasty ruled over ancient China for almost ________________ years. This period is divided into two parts—the earlier ___________________________________________ dynasty and the later __________________________________ dynasty.
- During the end of the ________________________________ dynasty a period known as the __________________________________________ began. During that time, small kingdoms fought for control over one another until a new dynasty—the __________________-finally emerged.
- The Chinese believed that the rulers came to power because it was their ________________________ or _________________. The idea was called the ________________________________________________ and it supported a leader’s right to ________________________ his people.
IV. IMPORTANCE OF THE FAMILY
- The _______________________ was the center of early Chinese society and was considered to be of far more importance than the individual or the nation. The _______________ was each person’s source of well-being.
- A household in ancient China might contain as many as ____________ __________________________________ living together. These closely related people are called an ___________________________________.
- The center of authority was usually the oldest _______________________. He had the most privileges and the most power in the family. When he died, all of his lands were divided among his ______________________.
- Women were bound by the three ____________________________________: to obey their ____________________ in youth, their _____________________________after their marriage, and their ________________________ in widowhood.
- In the ________________B.C., Chinese established the practice of using _________________________ family names along with a ____________________ name. The ______________________________ name was passed down from father to child. In Chinese society, the ____________________ name comes first.
I. THE LIFE OF CONFUCIUS
- Confucius was the most famous and important of the early Chinese thinkers. The Chinese called him ____________________________________, or “Master Kong.”
- Confucius was born in ______________ B.C. to a noble but poor family of the ___________________________________________. He loved ____________________ and after failing to advance to an important government office, he decided to try ________________________________.
- Confucius charged students a ________________ to take a class. He taught them his views of ________________________ and _____________________________.
- “From the very poorest upward…none has ever come to me without receiving __________________________________. I only instruct a student who _________________________________________________________________. “
- Confucius searched for a ________________________who would follow his teachings but he could not find one. He died in ____________ B.C. at age _____________ believing that his life had been a ________________________.
II. THE TEACHINGS OF CONFUCIUS
- Confucius did not claim to be an original _____________________; instead, he sought to pass on the _________________________________________ of wise people from an _________________________________________.
- Confucius himself never ______________ down his ________________________. Instead, his students gathered a collection of his _______________________ after his death. These writings made up a system of ____________________ or _________________________known as _______________________________________.
- Confucius lived during a time of frequent ___________________________ in China. Powerful rulers seemed more interested in gaining ___________________________than in ruling _________________________.
- Confucius hoped to persuade these ______________________ to change their ways and bring _________________ and ____________________ to China.
- Confucius believed that if people could be taught to behave ___________________________ toward one another, _____________________ and _________________________ would result and society would _________________.
- Confucius said that people ought to _________________________
the people above and below them and treat others ____________________.
- Confucius said that people in _________________________________ must set a good __________________________________.
- Confucius summarized his ideas about ___________________________________ in a simple way: “Do not ___________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________.”
- Although Confucianism is a ___________________________________, it has also functioned as a _________________________ for many people who practiced Confucianism alongside their existing _______________________ traditions.
- Ancient China was home to many kinds of _______________________________ beliefs and practices. Most Chinese believed life should be lived in __________________________________________________________________. Happiness came from living a ________________________________ life.
- A religious philosophy known as _____________________________ was based on the writings of ______________________, a Chinese thinker who lived in the ____________________ B.C. The _____________________________ loved nature and they believed in living ____________________ and _______________________ lives.
III. THE INFLUENCE OF CONFUCIUS
• The teachings of Confucius came to have a major effect on the
• Before the ideas of Confucius took hold, government posts were
generally given to the _______________________________________________.
Afterward, _____________________________ for government jobs had to pass
official examinations that were based on the teachings of Confucius.
• The _______________________ did not open government jobs to everyone.
Candidates still had to know how to ______________. Many talented but
poor men learned to ___________ and rose to high government positions.
- I. INTRODUCTION
• In _______________, several farmers were digging a well northern China. Six feet down, they found some _________________________, a reddish type of pottery. Another five feet down, they unearthed the ____________________________ head of a ______________________.
• Later, archaeologists discovered more than _________________________ ___________________________________________ and horses along with wood and bronze ____________________ and metal weapons. It was a terra cotta _______________________ that for more than 2,000 years had kept watch at the tomb of China’s first emperor, _______________________________.
• With his underground ______________________________________, Shi Huangdi had plans to rule a second _______________________________ in the afterlife.
- II. THE QIN DYNASTY
- Shi Huangdi’s dynasty lasted only ________________________________________, but that was still a huge accomplishment. Before that time, China was divided into ______________________________________ kingdoms. Shi Huangdi _____________________ these kingdoms to unify China.
- Shi Huangdi’s original name was ____________________________________. He ruled the _____________________ people who lived along China’s western border. By _____________________ B.C. ___________________ had extended his rule over most of the land that makes up modern-day China.
- When ____________________________ established the _______________ dynasty, he took the name Shi Huangdi, meaning _________________________________.
- Because ___________________ is sometimes spelled _____________, the name China comes from the ______________________ dynasty.
- Shi Huangdi sought to strengthen China through ______________________ and ________________ rule and protect the new empire from its enemies.
- Throughout history, _________________ had attacked China along its vast northern border. Shi Huangdi ordered the largest construction project in Chinese history, the building of the __________________________ of China.
- Previous rulers had built _____________________along the border; Shi Huangdi decided to _______________________________ them.
- He ordered ______________________ from their fields and ___________________ from their stores to form an army of hundreds of thousands of _____________________________ who labored for about _____________ years to construct the wall.
- To help put down _______________________________ within the empire, Shi Huangdi put thousands of farmers to work building ___________________ that would enable his ______________________ to rush to the scene of any uprisings.
- Shi Huangdi ______________________ or _________________________ any local rulers who opposed him.
- Shi Huangdi divided all of China into ______________________ with a local government run by the emperor’s trusted _____________________________.
- III. UNIFYING ECONOMY AND CULTURE
- Shi Huangdi was not content to ___________________ the government of China. He also wanted the many peoples of his united kingdom to have one ___________________________ and one _______________________.
- Shi Huangdi declared that one _____________________________ be used throughout China. This made it ______________________ for one region of China to __________________________________ with another.
- Shi Huangdi also ordered the creation of common __________________ and _________________________, an improved system of _________________, and a _________________ code.
- Shi Huangdi also tried to control the __________________________ of his people. In 213 B.C., he outlawed the ideas of ________________________ and other important thinkers. Instead he required that people learn the philosophies of ____________________________.
- The Qin believed in ___________________________, the idea that people should be ________________________ for _______________ behavior and ________________________ for good behavior. Good behavior meant that people worked to __________________ the ________________________________ and the _______________________________.
- Shi Huangdi commanded that all the _______________________ in China be _____________________ except those about ____________________________, __________________________, and ________________________. When hundreds of _______________________ protested the order, Shi Huangdi had them ___________________________.
- Shi Huangdi death in _______________ B.C. was followed by ___________ years of __________________ and ______________________ that ended in the murder of ______________________.
- Power then passed to Shi Huangdi’s ___________________________, but ______________________________ broke out and he could not hold China ________________________________.
- The dynasty that was supposed to last for 10,000 ___________________ lasted for only ___________________ years.
- IV. THE HAN DYNASTY
• One of the ___________________________ who helped overthrow the Qin dynasty was a ruler named _______________________________.
• By 202 B.C., ________________________ won out over his rivals and became the first emperor of a newChinese dynasty, the __________________.
- _________________________ created a ____________________ government that was less _____________________ than Shi Huangdi’s.
- The __________________ dynasty lasted about ______________ years, and because they realized that they needed _______________________people to work in the _____________________________, they set up the __________________ service system based on ______________________________ to meet that need.
- In ________________ B.C., Liu Bang’s great-grandson,_________________, came to power, and under his rule the ______________________________ reached its greatest _______________________.
- About ________________________ years old when he took the throne, he ruled for more than _____________________________.
- Wudi’s main interests were ______________ and ________________________. In fact, his name means “____________________________________________.”
- He made improvements to the __________________________________ and strengthened the _____________________.
- By the end of Wudi’s reign, Chinese rule stretched west into ____________________________, east into present-day ______________________ and central _____________________, and south into present-day _____________________________.
- Wudi died in _______ B.C. China’s ______________________________ and _______________________ continued under later ___________ emperors, but over time, the empire began to _________________________.
- A series of _______________________ emperors ruled the empire.
- _____________________ and ______________________ fell into disrepair.
- As the rule of the emperors weakened, ___________________________ gained power. The last ________________ emperor was kept in power by one such warlord named ___________________________.
- At first, _______________________ tried to control the empire through the ___________________. In A.D. ____________, he declared an end to the _______________ dynasty and set up his own _________________ dynasty.
- However, the _________________ empire had control over parts of ______________________ China, and when it broke up after about _____________ years, China broke up into a number of __________________________________.
- I. THE SILK ROAD
•The Emperor __________________ conquests in the west brought the
Chinese into contact with the people of _____________________________.
•Trade with the ______________________________ introduced the Chinese
to such new foods as ___________________, ______________________, and
______________________. In turn, Chinese ____________________ and
_______________________ passed to the peoples living in the ___________.
•This exchange gave rise to the _______________________________, a major
__________________ route that ran all the way from _____________________
to the ___________________________________________.
- The ___________________________ was a series of roads covering more
than ________________ miles that followed a challenging route
•The _____________________________ passed through _______________________
(present-day Iran) and _______________________________ before it finally
turned north to the city of ____________________________ in present-day
Turkey. From there, traders shipped goods acrossthe
Mediterranean Sea to _________________, ____________________,
_______________________, and other lands that bordered the
•Few travelers ever _______________________ the length of the
_____________________________ .Generally, goods were passed from
___________________ to ____________________ as they crossed ______________.
With each trade the _______________________ went up, and so by the
time they arrived at the end of their journey, they were very
•The __________________________ got its name from ________________, a
valuable cloth made only in China from _____________________.
•The arrival of _________________ in Europe created great excitement.
Wealthy _____________________ prized Chinese _________________ and
were willing to pay high _________________ for it. And wealthy people
in China would pay well for ___________________, ___________________,
___________________, ______________________, and _______________ cloth from
•More than _________________ traveled the road. New __________________
did too. _________________________________ from India traveled to China
along the road and brought _______________________________ with them.
- II. TRADITION AND LEARNING
•Han rulers found that during ________________________ times in the
past, many people had lost _________________________ for their
__________________________. As a way of bringing back this
____________________, rulers encouraged people to return to the
teachings of ___________________.
•Rulers of the ______________ and later dynasties also required
members of the _________________________________________ to be
educated in _________________________ teachings.
•The _______________________ and _____________________________ flourished
under the Han dynasty. Expressive _________________________
reflected Chinese __________________________ and Chinese scholars put
together the first _________________________ of the Chinese
•Until the time of the Han dynasty, the Chinese people had little
________________________________ of their own ________________________.
They knew only ___________________.
•The scholar ________________________spent his life writing a
______________________ of China from _______________________ times to the
reign of the Wudi. __________________________ work, called
_______________________________________, is a major source of
information about ancient China.
- III. HAN TECHNOLOGY
• Because the ______________ government was _________________________, the Chinese could turn their attention to _____________________ their society. During the Han dynasty, China became the most ________________________ __________________________ in the world.
• During the Han dynasty, the Chinese ____________________________ many practical devices that did not reach Europe until _______________________ ___________________________.
• Advances in the arts included: __________________________________________, ______________________________, _______________________, _______________________ and ________________________ and ____________________________________________.
• Advances in medicine included: ____________________________________, the treatment of disease using needles; ________________________________, the use of ___________ in the practice of medicine; circulatory system, the discovery that blood ____________________________________________________.
• Advances in technology included: _________________________ made from ___________________________, __________________________ for breaking up soil, a _______________________ to steer a ship, _____________________, wheelbarrow, and a _________________________, a device that registers the occurrence of ________________________________.
• The Chinese first used _____________________________ and ____________________ to keep records. Later they wrote messages and even whole books on ____________________. Then around A.D. ____________, the Chinese recorded one of their greatest achievements: the _________________________________.
• Early paper was made from materials such as __________________________, ______________________, and ____________________________. The materials were soaked in __________________, beaten into ______________________, and dried flat on a _______________________________.
• After several centuries, the use of _______________________ spread across ______________ and into Europe. Eventually, ____________________ replaced ______________________ from Egypt as the material for scrolls and books.
• The __________________ dynasty came to an end in the A.D. _______________,
but its ______________________________ were not forgotten. Today people
in China still call themselves “________________________________.”
- IV. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION (Answers will be found throughout the chapter.)
- People in China today still refer to themselves as “Children of Han” because ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- China’s physical geography affected the development of its early civilization by ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
- The philosophy of Confucius had such an impact on life in ancient Chinese society because _______________________________________________