DUAL CREDIT U. S. HISTORY

 

 

 

Exam Review Guide

 

 

 

 

Stephenville High School

Rick Sherrod

Room 502

Chapter 1 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What was the geographic origin of Paleo-Indians who entered the North American continent between 30,000 and 40,000 years ago?
  • How did the first people come to America?
  • What staple crop did Native American environmental engineering produce some 7,000 years ago?
  • What crops did Indian cultures plan together to form the basis for an agricultural revolution?
  • What was this “agricultural revolution” in North America?
  • Who were the first Europeans to reach North America?
  • What statement most accurately characterizes American Indian life at the time of European contact?
  • What were the belief systems and forms of social organization of the Native Americans of the woodlands east of the Mississippi River?
  • What Indian group, after arriving in the Valley of Mexico after 1200, established a tributary empire?
  • Which European country first began importing slaves from Africa?
  • What in particular enhanced European overseas trade in this period?
  • Why did the Portuguese court reject the Columbus plan of sailing west?
  • What did Columbus think of the first people he encountered in the West Indies?”
  • What became the major goal of European explorers after Columbus?
  • What was the profession of the first Europeans engaging in regular contact with Native Americans?
  • How did Indians respond to the first official French exploration of the Canadian coast?
  • Why did Indians in the Northeast seek to expand areas for obtaining food when coming into contact with the French?
  • What is suggested by the European view of the Indians as “noble savages”?
  • Why did Europeans often object to Native American behavior?
  • How did the Indians perceive trade?
  • How did the Indians perceive land?
  • What was the first and perhaps most profound result of the meeting of native and European cultures?
  • What is the best scholarly estimate of the number of people living north of Mexico in 1492?
  • What is an example of the exchange of diseases between Europe and America?
  • What were the key features of the “Columbian Exchange”?
  • How did Indians respond when their populations began to decline?
  • What group first turned the African slave trade into a thriving enterprise?
  • How did Europeans generally obtain slaves from Africa?
  • About how many enslaved Africans reached the New World between 1500 and 1800?
  • How did the Columbian Exchange affect the European population?
  • What were the principal tenets of Martin Luther’s theology?
  • According to Calvinists, how could happiness on earth be obtained?
  • What groups of people embraced Protestant doctrines?
  • What was the major reason King Henry VIII seized control of the Catholic Church in England?

Chapter 2 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What was the Treaty of Tordesillas (1493) and why was it important?
  • What enabled the Spanish to subdue the Aztecs?
  • Who was Francisco Vasquez de Coronado and why is he important?
  • How did the Spanish gain wealth in America?
  • What resulted from Francis Drake’s attack on Spanish ships?
  • Who staked England’s first claim to North American territory?
  • What major factor precipitated the decline in Spanish power?
  • What were the social consequences of overseas expansion in Europe?
  • Why did Spain try to invade England in 1588?
  • Who was Bartolomé de las Casas and how did he view the Indians?
  • What statement best describes the Catholic Church’s role in New Spain?
  • Who was Samuel de Champlain and why was he important?
  • Which European nations did not engage in the fur trade?
  • Who were the French Protestants and what was their role in overseas expansion and religious dissent?
  • What was the main economic activity in French Canada?
  • What resulted from the expeditions of Louis Joliet, Jacques Marquette, Robert Cavlier and Sieur de la Salle?
  • What resulted from the French acquisition of Louisiana?
  • Which European country had held the Netherlands (Holland) as a colony?
  • What characterize Dutch New World colonies?
  • Which religious order led Church efforts to convert Indians in New Mexico?
  • How did Indians in the Southeast respond to their declining numbers?
  • What did French Louisiana suffer from?
  • With whom did the French in Louisiana form an alliance?
  • Why was Louisiana unappealing to French farmers?
  • Why did Bartolomé de las Casas’s arguments win the Spanish court?

  

Chapter 3 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • Why did Nathaniel Bacon and his followers rebel against the government of Virginia?
  • What major economic transformation in England prompted migration to America?
  • What happened to the settlers at Roanoke Colony?
  • What precipitated the English Civil War in 1642?
  • Why was the Glorious Revolution and why was it important?
  • What characterized joint-stock companies?
  • Why did the Plymouth and London companies receive charters to settle Virginia?
  • What was the greatest problem in the early years of settlement for Jamestown settlers?
  • By 1610, the Jamestown settlement seemed destined to fail. What save it?
  • How did the Virginia Company encourage settlers to move to the colony?
  • In which colony did the House of Burgesses serve as a governing body?
  • For whom did George Calvert found Maryland as a religious haven?
  • What statement best describes Maryland’s early experience?
  • What was the main cause of Bacon’s Rebellion?
  • What kinds of people joined the ranks of rebels during 1676 Bacon’s Rebellion?
  • What set the rhythms of work and play in Maryland and Virginia?
  • Who did the work on the tobacco plantations during the early years of Virginia and Maryland?
  • What were indentured servants in Virginia and what were their lives like?
  • Why was the Mayflower Compact unique?
  • What was the economic mainstay of the Plymouth Colony?
  • In contrast to the Virginia colonists, what was the Massachusetts Bay Colony known for?
  • Where did most Massachusetts settlers live?
  • What were the important differences between Massachusetts and Virginia in the 17th century?
  • Which statement best describes an ideal of family life in colonial Massachusetts?
  • What did John Winthrop mean by calling Massachusetts a “city upon a hill”?
  • After being banished from Massachusetts, what colony did Roger Williams found?
  • Who was Anne Hutchinson and why was she important?
  • What was King Philip’s War?
  • What was the Half-Way Covenant?
  • Why important changes occurred in Massachusetts between 1630 and 1690?
  • What did the Salem witch trials reflect?
  • What nation controlled New York before England gained control of the region?
  • What political structure did William Penn embrace?
  • What did Quakers believe?
  • How were the Pennsylvania and Massachusetts colonies different?
  • Who helped to draw up the Fundamental Constitution of Carolina?
  • By the 1720s, what kind of economy had developed in South Carolina?
  • Which statement best describes the early development of North Carolina?
  • What was the status of slavery in Georgia when it was founded?

  

Chapter 4 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • How did the English elite view the American colonies?
  • Which were the richest English colonies?
  • How did the New England economy contrast to the economy in the southern colonial regions?
  • What economic activity existed in the backcountry regions to the west of the coastal settlements?
  • To what does the notion of the emergence of the “Yankee” refer?
  • In 1662, how did Virginia define its customs on slavery?
  • What was caused by the improvement of the English economy at the end of the 17th century?
  • How did South Carolina differ from Virginia?
  • What was true about the creation of African-American culture in the colonies?
  • Beginning in the 1720s, who carried out work on the Chesapeake plantations?
  • What characterized the Middle Colonies?
  • What made Philadelphia unique by 1770?
  • What characterized cities in the Colonial Era?
  • What was racial violence like in colonial America?
  • Where, in the 18th century, was a new immigrant to America most likely to settle?
  • What was the largest immigrant group in the colonies in the early-18th century?
  • In the backcountry, what did settlers and colonial governments often clash over?
  • What were the typical beliefs of Enlightenment thinkers?
  • What did John Locke argue in his essays?
  • Who was Jonathan Edwards and what were his beliefs?
  • What was the Great Awakening?
  • By 1700, in what colonies would there be a representative assembly?
  • What was the British policy of salutary neglect?
  • Who was the most powerful political authority in colonial government?
  • Which statement best describes colonial governors?
  • What kinds of power did local colonial assemblies have?
  • Where was “true legislative power” vested with regard to British colonial policy?
  • By 1690, from what did the most persistent danger to colonial peace and safety come?
  • Who had an easier time forming alliances with the Indians—the English or the French?
  • The French and Indian War is the American version of which European war?
  • What sparked the French and Indian War in 1754?
  • How was Prime Minister William Pitt’s handling of the French and Indian War different from the way than previous British leaders handled American wars?
  • What resulted from the French and Indian War?

 

 

Chapter 5 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What a key problem faced by England’s King George III when he came to the throne in 1760?
  • What resulted from the British victory over the French in the Seven Years’ War?
  • How did Indians respond to the influx of English settlers into their territory after 1763?
  • In 1763, what did Prime Minister George Grenville do to keep white settlers apart from the Indians?
  • How did the British government crack down on the smuggling of French sugar and molasses?
  • What was the first direct tax ever imposed on the colonists?
  • Who was hurt by the Stamp Tax?
  • Who led the Sons of Liberty?
  • What was Patrick Henry’s opinion of the Stamp Act?
  • What question did debates over the principle of “no taxation without representation” focus upon?
  • Why was the Stamp Act repealed?
  • How did colonists celebrate the repeal of the Stamp Act?
  • What was the Declaratory Act?
  • What were the Townshend Acts?
  • What was the concept of “virtual representation”?
  • Why did Boston artisans support the boycott of British goods in 1768?
  • Who raised the strongest voices against the boycott of English goods in protest against the Townshend Acts?
  • What caused the Boston Massacre?
  • What did Edmund Burke’s speech to the House of Commons indicate about his view of the trouble in the colonies?
  • What was the situation between Britain and American between 1770 and 1773?
  • What were the committees of correspondence and why were they important?
  • Why did Parliament pass the Tea Act of 1773?
  • What did the British government do after the Boston Tea Party?
  • Why did Americans object to the Quebec Act?
  • What were the Suffolk Resolves and what did they urge Americans to do?
  • What was done to colonists suspected of being loyal to Britain?
  • Where was the first military engagement of the American Revolution?
  • What was the Second Continental Congress and why was it important?
  • What was Thomas Paine’s Common Sense and why was it important?
  • Who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence?
  • What was the notion that expressed the rationale for independence as found in the Declaration of Independence?
  • Which statement about Loyalists is accurate?
  • Which statement about slavery and the American Revolution is accurate?

                                                                Chapter 6 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • Why were the odds against an American victory over Britain so great?
  • What dilemma did Thomas Gage face when he commanded British forces occupying Boston in 1775?
  • Why was the 1775 battle for Boston costly for the British?
  • What happened to George Washington when he reached the Patriot camp in Massachusetts?
  • What were the flaws with General William Howe’s strategy of using Loyalists?
  • What was the British plan for conquest of North and South Carolina in 1776?
  • How did George Washington rally his troops?
  • What does the Battle of Trenton indicate about George Washington as a general?
  • What was at the center of John Burgoyne’s plan to defeat America?
  • What did the British campaign of 1777 attempt to achieve?
  • What did the outcome of the 1777 New York campaign of British General John Burgoyne reveal?
  • What was the Battle of Saratoga and why was it important?
  • Which statement is true about the “long and dreadful winter” at Valley Forge?
  • How did Friedrich von Steuben help Washington’s army at Valley Forge?
  • From which occupation(s) did the enlisted men that survived the winter at Valley Forge come from?
  • Who represented American interests in Paris during the Revolution?
  • What did the British do after the American victory at Saratoga?
  • By 1780, what major factor prevented Britain from concentrating all it its military might and naval power in America?
  • What was the most important consequence of the French Alliance?
  • What was an important consequence of the 1778 financial crisis of the Continental Congress?
  • Which statement best describes the Revolutionary War in the West?
  • After 1776, what kept resistance to Revolution alive in the South?
  • What did Nathaniel Green’s strategy in the South include?
  • Who was Benedict Arnold and why was he important?
  • After which battle did British fighting against the colonies largely end?
  • What happened following the British defeat at Yorktown?
  • What was the Treaty of Paris (1783) and why was it important?
  • What happened to religion in the years after the American Revolution?
  • Which individual rights did the American revolutionary generation prove most responsive to defend?
  • After the Revolution, which two states eliminated all property requirements for voting?
  • What did the concept of “republican womanhood” stress?
  • Which statement best describes the plight of Black soldiers during the Revolutionary War?
  • What happened to the institution of slavery in the years after the American Revolution?

  

Chapter 7 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What philosophical reasons led Alexander Hamilton to support the Constitution?
  • What led some Americans to oppose the Constitution?
  • After ratification of the Constitution, what was the concern of many Americans regarding protection of individual rights?
  • What were the main features of the Articles of Confederation?
  • Why did ratification of the Articles of Confederation take so long?
  • What major problem did the Confederation government face?
  • What were the provisions of the Northwest Ordinances (1784, 1785, 1787)?
  • How did the Confederation deal with European powers?
  • What was the aim of Shays Rebellion of 1786?
  • Which states supported a strong central / federal / national government?
  • What key American leaders were absent at the 1787 Constitutional Convention?
  • What type of men composed the Constitution?
  • What was Madison’s “Virginia Plan?”
  • What was Connecticut’s “Great Compromise?”
  • What was the “Three-Fifths Compromise?”
  • Under the Constitution, what are president’s responsibilities?
  • Who chooses the president if there is no majority in the Electoral College?
  • What did it take to ratify the new Constitution?
  • What was the Antifederalist critique of the Federalists?
  • What was Washington’s “easiest” decision after becoming president?
  • What are the provisions of the Bill of Rights?
  • What was Hamilton’s economic goal for America?
  • How did Jefferson and Madison differ from Hamilton?
  • What were the controversial features of Hamilton’s economic plan?
  • What attitude did Hamilton’s economic plan aim seek to instill in America’s elite?
  • Why did Jefferson and Madison oppose a national bank?
  • Why did American opinion eventually turn against the French Revolution?
  • What immediate impact did the French Revolution have on Americans?
  • What attitude did the Whiskey Rebellion promote in the west?
  • Why did Washington send John Jay to negotiate a treaty with England?
  • What were the provisions of the “Jay Treaty?”
  • What did Washington say in his “Farewell Address?”
  • What did Hamilton argue in his Report on Manufacturing?
  • What did Hamilton believe about the relationship between the central government and the American economy?

  

Chapter 8 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What did Jefferson and Burr have in common in spite of their vastly different backgrounds?
  • What did John Adams have a reputation for as a politician?
  • Why was the presidential election of 1796 unique?
  • Which statement best describes the foreign policy alignments of the 1790s?
  • What was the XYZ Affair and what results were produced by it?
  • During the Quasi-War with France, what did Alexander Hamilton’s faction of the Federalist Party try to do?
  • What Federalist belief inspired the Alien Act (1798)?
  • What was the Sedition Act (1798) and why was it important?
  • How did Republicans perceive the Alien and Sedition Acts?
  • How was America’s crisis with France during the Adams administration resolved?
  • In the election of 1800, why did many southern Federalists choose to support Jefferson?
  • What was the outcome of the 1800 election?
  • After the 1800 election, what did the Federalist-controlled judiciary do?
  • Why did the Federalists create a tremendous number of new judicial appointments in 1801?
  • Besides letting the Alien and Sedition Acts expire, what did Congress do during the Jefferson presidency?
  • What were Jefferson’s beliefs regarding economic policy?
  • What was the significance of Marbury v. Madison (1803)?
  • What was Thomas Jefferson’s vision of America?
  • How did America’s war against the Barbary pirates end?
  • What was the Antifederalist critique of the Federalists?
  • How did François Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture indirectly help make possible the Louisiana Purchase?
  • Which statement best describes the debate over the Louisiana Purchase?
  • When Thomas Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and s small party into the Louisiana area, what was their primary mission?
  • How far west did the Lewis and Clark expedition get?
  • Who led the next major exploration of new territory after the Lewis and Clark expedition?
  • What did the election of 1804 demonstrate?
  • Which of the following limited migration to the region west of the Appalachian Mountains in the early-1800s?
  • Along with economic instability, why was social instability also common in the West?
  • Which of the following best describes young people living on the frontier?
  • What great challenge did traditional New England Congregationalism face during the early-1800s?
  • Which statement about early 19th century evangelicals is accurate?
  • What statement best describes Thomas Jefferson’s view of Indians?
  • What was the chief problem for Jefferson’s Indian policy?
  • How did the Louisiana Purchase affect Jefferson’s Indian policy?
  • What ideas formed the basis for Indian policy for the rest of the 19th century?

 

Chapter 9 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • Why did an increasing number of Jeffersonians demand aggressive action against Indian groups along the western frontier?
  • Why did Aaron Burr kill Alexander Hamilton?
  • What was James Wilkinson’s role in the Burr conspiracy?
  • During the war between France and England, what did Americans intend to do?
  • What British act served to strain British relations with the U. S.?
  • Why did Napoleon seek an alliance with Russia in 1807?
  • What did Jefferson do when it became clear in 1808 that European powers were not going to respect American neutrality?
  • What was the Embargo of 1808 and what impacts did it have?
  • Upon whom did western farmers direct their anger when adversely affected by the Embargo of 1808?
  • What did Tecumseh urge Indians to do?
  • What did William Henry Harrison believe about Tecumseh?
  • How were the Indians and the British linked together in the minds of William Henry Harrison and men who thought like him?
  • What was the Non-Intercourse Act?
  • What preceded an angry meeting between Tecumseh and William Henry Harrison in Vicennes in 1810?
  • What was the Battle of Tippecanoe and why was it important?
  • Why did the War of 1812 catch the U. S. terribly unprepared?
  • On what disturbing note did the War of 1812 begin?
  • Which statement best describes the naval war during the year of 1812?
  • What did the election of 1812 reveal, despite a rough start to the War of 1812?
  • Why were the Great Lakes so important in the War of 1812?
  • In what way did Oliver Hazard Perry make his reputation during the War of 1812?
  • What was the significance of the Battle of Thames?
  • How did Napoleon’s defeat at the hands of the British in 1814 affect the Americans?
  • What was the most successful battle fought by the Americans during the War of 1812 (and why was it so ironic)?
  • What was a positive effect on the U. S. resulting from the War of 1812?
  • What new avenue of economic expansion opened as a result of the War of 1812?
  • Why did white citizens protest Andrew Jackson’s military presence in New Orleans?
  • What was the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and why was it important?
  • Which statement best describes Andrew Jackson’s defense of New Orleans?
  • How many casualties did the British suffer in the Battle of New Orleans (1815)?
  • What softened British demands during the peace negotiations with Americans?
  • What was the Treaty of Ghent and why was it important?
  • What sector of the American economy was strengthened during the War of 1812?
  • How did big business find wealth in the West in the years after the War of 1812?
  • What was true of Native Americans in the years after the War of 1812?
  • What created an enormous new demand for cotton from the America South?
  • How did the expansion of cotton production in the South change slavery?
  • What did Tecumseh try to convince William Henry Harrison of in their running war of words?

Chapter 10 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What prompted John C. Calhoun to develop the nullification doctrine?
  • What was the Hartford Convention?
  • How did Republicans promote industrial development after the War of 1812?
  • What made commercial activity in the West difficult?
  • What was the Cumberland Road and why was it important?
  • Which state was most successful developing canals?
  • What was Henry Miller’s Shreve’s great accomplishment?
  • Why was the case McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) important?
  • What was the significance of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden?
  • What did the U. S. gain through the 1821 Adams-Onís Treaty?
  • What was the Monroe Doctrine?
  • What was the movement West like after the War of 1812?
  • What was the main cause of the Panic of 1819?
  • What was the Tallmadge Amendment?”
  • What was the Missouri Compromise? (two questions on this topic)
  • Who did backers of the American System support in the 1824 presidential election?
  • Who did Henry Clay support in the election of 1824?
  • What did John Quincy Adams propose during his presidency?
  • What was the most profound change on the American political scene by 1830?
  • Whose growing influence did the passage of the “Tariff of Abominations” reveal?
  • What were the most economic changes in the U. S. between 1800-1830?
  • What issue dominated the presidential election campaign of 1828?
  • How did Andrew Jackson treat the federal bureaucracy?
  • How was Andrew Jackson different from previous presidents?
  • What was the Second Bank of the U. S. and why was it important?
  • How did Andrew Jackson resolve his differences with the Bank of the U. S.?
  • How did Andrew Jackson propose to deal with the government’s western lands?
  • What immediate impact did the French Revolution have on Americans?
  • What was federal policy toward the Indians during the 1820s?
  • What were the views of John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson regarding treaties with the Indians?
  • Which one of the so-called “Five Civilized Tribes” used military resistance against the government’s efforts to relocate those Indians?
  • What year was the “Tariff of Abominations” passed?

  

Chapter 11 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What patterns of America life are typified by Helen Jewett?
  • What were American roads like in the 1830s?
  • What railroad received the first state charter?
  • What were the major problems in 19th century railroad construction?
  • What was the name for Samuel Slater’s system using of home workers to produce textiles?
  • Which was the “American System of Manufacturing”?
  • What was the typical worker at the Lowell Mills like in the 1830s?
  • Why was the relationship between 1820s & 30s urban factory workers & their employers?
  • What were immigrant experiences like for those who came to the U. S. before 1861?
  • What did Odd Fellows & Masons stress?
  • What was the “cult of domesticity”?
  • What did some women of the 1830s & 40s involve themselves in doing?
  • What were antebellum cotton plantation owners like?
  • Where did the slaves in the Cotton Belt come from?
  • How profitable was slavery?
  • What did a male field hand in his mid-20s sell for at the height of the slave trade?
  • Who were antebellum planters like?
  • What was the typical slave cabin like?
  • What was the typical diet of a slaves?
  • How were slaves in the South typically punished?
  • What percentage of Southern white families owned slaves?
  • What were small white farmers in the South like?
  • What was the typically free black of the South like?
  • What were black slaveholders like?
  • Which choice best describes the typical slaveholder?
  • Which choice best describes a typical planters wife?
  • What were the complaints of Mary Boykin Chestnut?
  • What was marriage among the Southern elites like?
  • What did the average slave diet usually include?
  • What were the stories surrounding the murder of Helen Jewett?
  • How did water-based transportation compare to rail transport?
  • By 1835, what was the circulation of American newspapers?
  • What was the flow of information in America like in the mid-1840s?

  

Chapter 12 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What did the Second Great Awakening emphasize regarding women?
  • What was Charles G. Finney’s preaching style?
  • What is an accurate statement about members of evangelical religious denominations?
  • What kinds of things did the theologians of the Second Great Awakening emphasize and advocate?
  • Why was there a steady increase in the number of strikes during the 1830s?
  • Why were journeymen dissatisfied with the emerging industrial economic system?
  • What was the ruling in Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842)?
  • What caused working class protests, strikes, and riots in 19th century U. S. cities?
  • What does the slave folktale of Br’er Rabbit and Br’er Fox really suggest?
  • Where did most escaped slaves come from?
  • Who was Nat Turner and why is he important?
  • How did Southern whites deal with the possibility of slave uprisings?
  • What did reformers in voluntary societies of the 1830s stress?
  • What were the main beliefs of reformers during the first half of the 19th century?
  • What did Horace Mann attempt to reform?
  • Who was Dorothea Dix and why was she important?
  • What accounts for the growth of the temperance movement?
  • What were the claims of the American Colonization Society?
  • What did William Lloyd Garrison advocate?
  • In 1836, how did Congress react to the rising tide of abolitionism?
  • What intellectual movement is linked to Ralph Waldo Emerson?
  • Who was the most radical of the transcendentalists?
  • What kind of amusements were common among working class men before the Civil War?
  • What was the cultural life of a slave like?
  • What was the religious life of a slave like?
  • Who founded New Harmony and why?
  • Why were the Owenites unpopular with more traditional Americans?
  • On whose ideas was Brook Farm founded?
  • How did Mormons exercise political clout?
  • What was the presidential election of 1832 like?
  • Why did Andrew Jackson’s opponents call themselves “Whigs”?
  • What caused the Panic of 1837?
  • What important shift in U. S. politics became clear as a result of the election of 1840?

 

Chapter 13 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What did Lorenzo de Zavala want in Texas?
  • What were the two views held by Americans about the West?
  • How did the Indian approach to management and exploitation of natural resources differ from the European view?
  • What group of people were the first to join fur trappers in the West?
  • What was the principal underlying cause for westward migration?
  • Why did large numbers of New Englanders migrate from 1825-1840?
  • Which statement best described Stephen F. Austin’s efforts to settle Texas?
  • What was the typical migrant to Texas like?
  • Who began the first permanent agricultural settlements in Oregon?
  • Which Mormon leader left the East and settled in Utah?
  • What was the pre-emption bill of 1841?
  • What were the hopes of migrants who headed West?
  • What led to the concerted effort by white Americans in Oregon Country to remove Indians?
  • How did Spanish settlers organize California?
  • What did the elite class that emerged in Santa Fe result from?
  • As the population of Texas increased, where did most settlers originate?
  • What was Manifest Destiny?
  • What caused the 1838 conflict between Britain and the U. S.?
  • What was the 1818 agreement between Britain and the U. S. regarding Oregon?
  • What did Mexican law require of Americans who settled in Texas?
  • What caused the Texas Revolution of 1836?
  • Who was the “Napoleon of the West”?
  • How did the Texas Revolution end?
  • What were the terms of the treaty annexing Texas and who opposed it?
  • What role did the annexation of Texas play in the election of 1844?
  • What was the Democratic political platform in 1844?
  • How was the Oregon border dispute settled?
  • In annexing Texas, why did Tyler and Calhoun offend the Mexican government?
  • What were Mexican-American relations like before the Mexican War began?
  • Why did Henry David Thoreau oppose the Mexican War?
  • What were the terms of the Wilmot Proviso?
  • What happened in California after the outbreak of the Mexican war?
  • How did the Mexican War proceed?
  • What were the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
  • What prevented President Polk from annexing Mexico?
  • What did Liberty Party leaders believe about slavery?
  • Who did the Democrats nominate as presidential candidate for 1848?
  • What was the central issue of the 1848 presidential election?
  • What was the Free Soil Party policy in 1848?
  • Who was Lorenzo de Zavala and why is he important?

 

Chapter 14 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What loosely knit political group did Whig leaders organize after 1848?
  • How did American antislavery advocates compare to their British counterparts?
  • How did delegates of the 1848 Seneca Falls, New York Convention respond to a resolution calling for women’s suffrage?
  • Besides allowing admission of California to the Union as a free state, what else did the Compromise of 1850 require?
  • For northerners, what was the most appalling feature of the Compromise of 1850?
  • By the 1850s, what factor had enabled westerners to increase their economic and political power?
  • Who was Harriet Beecher Stowe and what was the significance of her book Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)?
  • What fraction of the southern population owned slaves?
  • What were members of the Whig Party who supported moderate abolitionism called?
  • What was the Gadsden Purchase and why was it important?
  • Which politician most actively supported federal aid for the transcontinental railroad?
  • How did Stephen Douglas propose to resolve the issue of slavery in new territories?
  • Who opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act and why?
  • How did John Brown respond to the sack of the antislavery town of Lawrence, Kansas?
  • How did Representative Preston Brooks respond when Senator Charles Sumner insulted his uncle before Congress?
  • Under the Constitution, what are president’s responsibilities?
  • What was the nature and outcome of the election of 1856?
  • What was the Dred Scott case and how did the Supreme Court rule in it?
  • How did Congress finally resolve the controversy over slavery in Kansas?
  • During the 1850s, what was Abraham Lincoln’s position on slavery?
  • What resulted from the Lincoln-Douglas debates?
  • Why did John Brown attack the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry?
  • How many major candidates were there for president in 1860?
  • What did Senator John Crittenden propose to prevent the breakup of the Union?
  • Which state first seceded from the Union?
  • Why did Jefferson Davis believe the South was justified in seceding?
  • What type of men comprised Abraham Lincoln’s Cabinet?
  • Where did the first battle of the Civil War occur?
  • Which statement best describes Abraham Lincoln’s handling of the secession crisis?
  • To whom did Abraham Lincoln initially offer field command of the Union armies?

Chapter 15 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • When the war began, what was the biggest challenge confronting Lincoln and Davis?
  • What did General-in-Chief Winfield Scott advocate the Union do once the fighting began?
  • What position did Radical Republicans like Thaddeus Stevens take with regard to southerners?
  • On what did Confederates pin their main hopes on winning the war?
  • What position on military strategy did Confederate President Jefferson Davis take?
  • What position did the British take with regard to the Civil War?
  • What sparked the Trent affair?
  • How did victory at the Battle of Bull Run affect the South?
  • What was McClellan’s major strength as a general?
  • What became clear about the war after the Battle of Bull Run?
  • What was the Battle of Shiloh and why was it important?
  • Which statement best describes Union General George B. McClellan?
  • What was the bloodiest single-day battle of the Civil War?
  • Which statement best describes the Union war effort in 1862?
  • What principal factor frustrated Jefferson Davis’s diplomatic goal of gaining British recognition of the Confederacy?
  • What was the Emancipation Proclamation and why was it important?
  • What resulted from the Emancipation Proclamation?
  • What was the Union’s Conscription Act of 1863 and why was it important?
  • What was the nature of the Confederacy’s conscription law and the response of southerners to it?
  • What was the Confederacy’s most serious shortage?
  • Who first used runaway slaves in the Union armies?
  • Which statement best describes the Civil War experiences of African American soldiers?
  • How did Jefferson and Madison differ from Hamilton?
  • Why did Andersonville, Georgia have a notorious reputation?
  • What was the Battle of Chancellorsville and what resulted from it?
  • What was the Battle of Gettysburg and what resulted from it?
  • What happened immediately after the Battle of Gettysburg?
  • Who were William T. Sherman and Ulysses S. Grant and why were they important figures in the Civil War?
  • What was General Grant’s strategy in the spring of 1864?
  • Why did southerners reject Lincoln’s offer of amnesty in 1864?
  • What enabled the Union to take the city of Atlanta?
  • What was the nature and outcome of the presidential election of 1864?
  • Which statement best describes John Wilkes Booth’s role in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln?
  • What happened in the South following Robert E. Lee’s surrender?

  

Chapter 16 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What did the end of slavery force southerners of both races to do?
  • Why was freedom for the slaves a central concern for Lincoln and the Republican Party?
  • Who were the “Radical Republicans” and why were they important?
  • On what ground, besides the moral one, did Radical Republicans oppose slavery?
  • What was Lincoln’s “Ten-Percent Plan” and why was it important?
  • What was the 13th Amendment?
  • What was Andrew Johnson’s approach to Reconstruction?
  • How did most white southerners view Johnson and his plan for Reconstruction?
  • What were the very first institutions that African-Americans fully controlled?
  • During Reconstruction, who established free public education?
  • What was Sherman’s Special Field Order No. 15 and why was it important?
  • What stopped the Freedman’s Bureau from distributing land to former slaves?
  • Which statement best describes the origins of sharecropping?
  • What were the results of the sharecropping system?
  • What were the Black Codes passed by southern legislatures in late-1865 and 1866 and why were they important?
  • Which statement about the Ku Klux Klan is most accurate?
  • What did northern Congressmen do when southern states sent representatives to Congress in December 1865?
  • What happened with the bill to extend the life of the Freedman’s Bureau?
  • Why did the 1866 Civil Rights Act have broad implications for all of society?
  • What was the 14th Amendment?
  • Why did Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton object to the 14th Amendment?
  • Which statement about Congress’s relationship with President Johnson is most accurate?
  • How did Jefferson and Madison differ from Hamilton?
  • What are the important aspects of the 14th Amendment?
  • What specific act did the House of Representatives cite in its attempt to impeach Andrew Johnson?
  • What resulted from the effort to impeach and remove Andrew Johnson?
  • What characterized the election of 1868?
  • Which statement regarding the 15th Amendment is most accurate?
  • What happened to the Ku Klux Klan do under the terms of the Ku Klux Klan Acts of 1870 and 1871?
  • What best describes the typical Republican voter in the South during Reconstruction?
  • Which statement regarding the participation of African-Americans in Reconstruction is most accurate?
  • What was a “carpetbagger”?
  • What a “scalawag”?
  • What kind of political corruption existed during Reconstruction?
  • Who were the “Redeemers” of the South and how did they usually come to power?
  • Who did the Democrats nominate as their presidential candidate in 1872?
  • Why did Republican candidates lose support in the North in 1874?
  • What happened in the presidential election of 1876?
  • What was the Compromise of 1877?
  • How did northern Democrats view Reconstruction?
  • When did historians in the U. S. begin to reconsider their interpretation of Reconstruction?

  

Chapter 17 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • By 1865, why were conditions ripe for rapid industrialization in the U. S.?
  • What was the Homestead Act of 1862 designed to do?
  • How did American farmers react to declining prices for their crops?
  • Why did American farms increase their output after the Civil War?
  • Why statement best describes the relationship between the federal government and American industrialization?
  • What was the goal of the tariff passed in 1861?
  • What was the Morrill Act of 1862 and why was it important?
  • During the 1880s, how did railroads finance expansion?
  • How did railroads use “rebates”?
  • What or who became symbolic of railroad corruption and influence in government during the 1870s?
  • What made Chicago grow so rapidly?
  • Why did Chicago become the center for the mail-order sales business?
  • What was the contribution to industrial development made by Henry Bessemer and William Kelly?
  • How did Andrew Carnegie help to transform the organizational structure of manufacturing?
  • What philosophy incorporated the idea that competition in human society produced the “survival of the fittest”?
  • What is the belief that the economy functions best when the government leaves it strictly on its own?
  • What was the birthplace of most late-19th century American workers?
  • From where did almost all successful business leaders come?
  • During what decade did voting become secret in the U. S.?
  • In the late-19th century, with what was the term “spoils” associated?
  • Most voters developed strong loyalties to one part or another on what basis?
  • What name became synonymous with urban political corruption?
  • Who founded the organization of farmers called the Grange?
  • Which political party was organized around the single issue of falling farm prices?
  • What did Congress do in 1878 to counter deflation?
  • What was the Great Strike of 1877 and why was it important?
  • How did the Alaska treaty differ from earlier agreements acquiring new U. S. territory?
  • What was the Monroe Doctrine and why was it important?
  • During the American Civil War, Mexico was occupied by which country?
  • What did William H. Seward do besides acquiring Alaska from Russia?
  • What were the accomplishments of Hamilton Fish as Secretary of State?
  • What terms were included in the first treaty between China and the U. S.?
  • What did Social Darwinists Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner claim?
  • After he left the steel business, what did Andrew Carnegie do with his money?
  • Who were Henry George and Lester Ward and why were they important?
  • Which statement about 19th century industrialists is most accurate?
  • When did the first Christian missionaries from the U. S. arrive in Hawaii?
  • What did Andrew Carnegie assert in the “Gospel of Wealth”?

Chapter 18 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What strategies did John D. Rockefeller use to revolutionize the petroleum industry?
  • Explain the emergence of the “trust” as a form of business organization?
  • Why was the 1890s Standard Oil monopoly of the oil business short-lived?
  • Why did advertising emerge as a central aspect of conducting business in America?
  • With access to huge amounts of capital, what did John P. Morgan do?
  • What is the correct name for a small number of firms that dominate an industry?
  • Which Southern political party promoted the idea of the “Lost Cause”?
  • Who were the Knights of Labor?
  • What was the nature of most late-19th century immigrants to America?
  • How did most immigrants respond to pressure to become “Americanized”?
  • What was late-19th century American manufacturing like?
  • Where was the first American skyscraper built?
  • How did late-19th century American cities differ from early-19th century American cities?
  • What consequences resulted from the rapid growth of American cities?
  • What were the results of the great Chicago fire of 1871?
  • What happened when heavy manufacturing moved to the outskirts of cities?
  • What best describes the new middle class of the late-19th century?
  • What were the traits and characteristics of late-19th century American education?
  • What were conditions like for late-19th century American women?
  • What did the election of 1880 demonstrate?
  • What were the greatest battles of President James A. Garfield about?
  • Who were the “Mugwumps”?
  • What was the significance of the Supreme Court case of Munn v. Illinois (1877)?
  • What was the Interstate Commerce Commission?
  • Under what circumstances in 1888 was Benjamin Harrison elected president?
  • How did George W. Plunkitt indicate Tammany Hall retained voter loyalty?
  • For what did Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony crusade?
  • What were the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association?
  • What was the first state to grant women the vote?
  • Why did the Utah Territory grant women the right to vote?
  • What type of late-19th century proposal advocated structural change?
  • What happened to the condition of the U. S. Navy after the American Civil War?
  • How did late-19th century Americans gain influence in Hawaii?

  

Chapter 19 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • How did the farm economy of the West differ the one in the East?
  • What material did white settlers on the Great Plains used to build their houses?
  • Who brought the strain of wheat that enabled Western farmers to succeed in spite of lack of rain?
  • Which statement best describes construction of western railroads?
  • What happened at Promontory Summit, Utah in 1869?
  • What was the reputation of the Southern Pacific Railroad?
  • What was mining like throughout the West?
  • What were the Red River Valley in the Dakotas and the San Joaquin Valley in California known for?
  • What was the first crop produced on giant farms by western agri-businessmen?
  • Which statement best describes development of logging in the Pacific Northwest?
  • What city came to dominate late-19th century cultural and economic activity in the West?
  • What was the Reclamation Act of 1902?
  • Which statement about Chinese immigrants is most true?
  • Congress responded to anti-Chinese prejudice by passing what type of legislation?
  • What was the Supreme Court decision in Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886)?
  • Who claimed every culture should be understood on its own rather than as part of an evolutionary chain?
  • What major change in U. S. Indian policy took place after 1871?
  • Which statement best describes white American attitudes toward Indians in the 1880s?
  • What was the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887?
  • Who was Susan Le Flesche and what did she do?
  • How were Americans of Mexican ancestry treated in the late-19th & early-20th centuries?
  • Which statement is most consistent with the mythic portrayal of the West?
  • What did historian Frederick Jackson Turner argue?
  • How was Sitting Bull different from most Lakotas in 1868?
  • What did Sitting Bull do during the last years of his life?
  • How did the ethnic and racial composition of the West differ from the northeastern and north-central U. S.?
  • What demographic feature was unique to the Southwest?
  • What transformed the culture of some Plains Indian tribes?
  • What Great Plains Indian group was the largest?
  • How did Great Plains Indians understand the concept of land?
  • How did most Plains Indians achieve high social standing?
  • What were the treaties signed at Fort Laramie in 1851?
  • What was federal Indian policy like in 1851?
  • What happened in 1867 the conference at Medicine Lodge
  • What army general launched the winter campaign of 1868-1869
  • Who led the Indian confederation at the 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn?
  • What triggered the Great Sioux War?
  • Which was the last sizable Indian group to refuse to live on a reservation?
  • What was the Ghost Dance?
  • What event marked the symbolic end of armed conflict on the Great Plains?
  • Which Indian leader led a small band of Lakotas at Wounded Knee?
  • Which factor was most responsible for the eventual defeat of the Indians of the West?

  

Chapter 20 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What was How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis?
  • Who was Jane Addams?
  • What was the Social Gospel movement?
  • What was the McKinley Tariff of 1889?
  • What was the Sherman Anti-Trust Act?
  • What did Republicans have to do to gain approval of their 1890 tariff bill?
  • What was the American Protective Association?
  • Why did the American Federation of Labor support literacy tests for immigrants?
  • How were the “new immigrants” arriving in 1890 different than immigrants prior to 1890?
  • Which statement about the farm economy of the Gilded Age is most accurate?
  • Why did farmers complain about the railroads?
  • What did the Farmers’ Alliance, the Grange, and the Knights of Labor advocate?
  • What organization gave rise to the Populist Party?
  • What concepts did the Populists endorse?
  • What did Populists in 1890 Kansas do?
  • Why was Grover Cleveland’s election in 1892 unique?
  • What hurt Grover Cleveland during his 2nd term in office?
  • What did Jacob Coxey advocate during the economic crisis of the 1890s?
  • What best describes segregation in the south before 1883?
  • During the early-20th century, who was the most prominent black leader in the U.S. among whites?
  • What was a common way of eliminating black political participation in the South after 1896?
  • What did the Supreme Court rule in Plessey v. Ferguson?
  • How often did lynchings take place during the years from 1885 to 1900?
  • What best describes Grover Cleveland’s economic policies in 1893?
  • What took place during the presidential campaign of 1896? (two questions)
  • What did Alfred Thayer Mahan argue?
  • What was the main argument of Josiah Strong’s Our Country (1885)?
  • Who was Queen Liliuokalani and what happened to her?
  • What do American actions in the Venezuelan boundary dispute of 1896 indicate?
  • How did the Spaniards counter guerrilla warfare in Cuba?
  • What best describes the reporting by American journalists on the war in Cuba?
  • What was the de Lôme letter?
  • What was the Teller Amendment?
  • Why were some Americans interested in the Philippine Islands?
  • What did George Dewey’s naval victory in Manila Bay demonstrate?
  • How did most Americans die in the Spanish-American War?
  • How did Albert Beveridge argue in favor of the U. S. annexation of the Philippines?
  • What was the Platt Amendment?
  • Who was Emilio Aguinaldo?
  • What were the “Open Door” notes?
  • What was the “Boxer Rebellion”?
  • Who was Eugene Debs?

  

Chapter 21 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What was Theodore Roosevelt’s role in the anthracite coal strike?
  • What were the beliefs that shaped the Progressive movement? (several questions)
  • Who was the “New Woman” of the Progressive Era?
  • Why did Margaret Sanger attract wide attention in 1916?
  • Who was W. E. B. Du Bois and why was he important?
  • What was the Socialist of Party of America?
  • What was the Industrial Workers of the World?
  • Who were Lincoln Staffens and Ida Tarbell?
  • What was Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle?
  • What legislation resulted from muckraking efforts?
  • What was advocated by progressive reformers operating in cities?
  • What type of policies were advocated by Hazen Pingree and “Golden Rule” Jones?
  • What type of policies were advocated by progressive educational and medical?
  • Who was Robert La Follette and why was he important?
  • What state became a “laboratory for democracy”?
  • Who was Hiram Johnson and the California Progressives?
  • What was “the initiative” of “direct legislation”?
  • What was a “referendum”?
  • What was the Supreme Court decision in the United States v. E. C. Knight (1895)?
  • What were Theodore Roosevelt’s views on trusts?
  • What were the Elkins Act and the Hepburn Act?
  • What was a common way of eliminating black political participation in the South after 1896?
  • What kinds of reforms did Theodore Roosevelt effectively champion?
  • What did the federal government do under the terms of the National Reclamation Act (1902)?
  • What was the 16th Amendment?
  • What were the Hay-Pauncefote Treaties?
  • What was the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty?
  • What was theRoosevelt Corollary?
  • What was “Dollar Diplomacy”?
  • What was the “New Nationalism”?
  • What platform sought to prosecute trusts and reduce tariffs in the 1912 election?
  • What was the “Bull Moose” or Progressive Party of 1912?
  • Woodrow Wilson was urged to center his 1912 presidential campaign on big business by what?
  • What was the Underwood Act?
  • What was the Federal Reserve Act of 1913?
  • What are the roles of the Federal Reserve?
  • What was the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)?

  

Chapter 22 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • How did Alvin York’s religious convictions influence his actions as a soldier?
  • What were conditions like when Woodrow Wilson entered the White House in 1919?
  • What was President Wilson’s goal in dealing with the Mexican Revolution?
  • What resulted from the American occupation of Veracruz?
  • Why did Wilson finally withdraw American troops from Mexico?
  • Why were the Balkans called the “powder keg of Europe”?
  • What nations comprised the Central Powers?
  • What happened during the first few months of World War I?
  • What did Wilson urge Americans to do when World War I began in Europe?
  • Which group of Americans did not sympathize with the Allies during the war?
  • What best describes America’s policy of neutrality?
  • Why did the Germans sink the British passenger ship Lusitania?
  • What happened in the election of 1916?
  • What happened in the months immediately prior to America’s declaration of war on Germany?
  • What was the Zimmerman Telegram?
  • What was the War Industries Board?
  • What was the National War Labor Board?
  • What was the Creel Committee?
  • What did the Supreme Court do when opponents of the Espionage Act challenged its legality?
  • What characterized American labor’s wartime experience?
  • What best describes the American labor force during World War I?
  • What best describes race relations during World War I?
  • What best describes the draft during World War I?
  • What best described the condition of African-American troops during World War I?
  • Why did Woodrow Wilson regard American as an Associated Power?
  • What best describes the condition and contribution made to the war by black troops?
  • Why did Russia withdraw from World War I?
  • How did the Allies react to Wilsons Fourteen Points?
  • What kind of conditions followed the end of the war in areas where combat had occurred?
  • What did Britain support as a Palestinian policy in 1917?
  • What was the Treaty of Versailles?
  • What did the Treaty of Versailles support regarding the question of self-determination?
  • Who was Henry Cabot Lodge and why was he important?
  • Who was Edith Bolling Wilson and why was she important?
  • Why did a large number of strikes occur in 1919?
  • In 1919, how did Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge make a name for himself?
  • What were Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer’s raids in 1919-1920?
  • What were the criminal syndicalism laws?
  • Who were Sacco and Vanzetti and why were they important?
  • Why did Republicans nominate Warren G. Harding for president in 1920?
  • What happened in the presidential election of 1920?
  • What was Woodrow Wilson trying to accomplish by presenting his Fourteen Points?

  

Chapter 23 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • In terms of living conditions, how did Americans of 1920 compare to those of 1929?
  • What ways did American business change during the 1920s?
  • Which statement best describes American consumers’ habits in the 1920s?
  • What was a principal reason for Henry Ford’s success as an automobile manufacturer?
  • What was true of the automobile industry during the 1920s?
  • What was Bruce Barton’s book The Man Nobody Knows (1925) about?
  • What was true of the American stock market in the 1920s?
  • In what way was the Florida land boom like the stock market in the 1920s?
  • What was the least prosperous sector of the economy during the 1920s?
  • What led to the explosive growth of Los Angeles in the 1920s?
  • What contributed to the homogenization of American culture during the 1920s?
  • What year did the first commercial radio station begin broadcasting?
  • What was the most popular spectator sport of the 1920s?
  • Who was the great male film “sex symbol” of the 1920s?
  • Who was the most popular hero of the 1920s?
  • In the 1920s, what were the intellectuals who left America and became expatriates called?
  • Who was H. L. Mencken and why was he important?
  • Who were the artists and writers of the Harlem Renaissance and why were they important?
  • What did Marcus Garvey encourage black people to do?
  • Which of the following statements best describes fashionable Americans in their late-teens and early-twenties during the 1920s?
  • What was a speakeasy and what happened there?
  • What national experiment was launched by the 18th Amendment?
  • What was racketeering and what negative impacts did it have on America?
  • What describes the activities and beliefs of religious fundamentalists in the 1920s?
  • Who was the greatest advocate of religious fundamentalism in the 1920s?
  • What impact did the National Origins Act of 1924 have on immigration?
  • What were the Restrictive Covenants?
  • What even sparked the revival of the Ku Klux Klan?
  • Which statement describing the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s is most accurate?
  • What were the activities of the NAACP during the 1920s?
  • What describes the condition of Asian Americans during the 1920s?
  • Who was John Collier and why was he important?
  • Which statement best describes Mexican Americans’ experiences during the 1920s?
  • What did the Supreme Court of the 1920s favor regarding the rights of labor?
  • What was the American Plan and why was it important?
  • Which statement best characterizes American families in the 1920s?
  • Who was Margaret Sanger and why was she important?
  • Who was Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon and what were his views on the economy?
  • Who was Al Smith and what political role did he seek in 1928?
  • What was the Dawes Plan and why was it important?
  • What was the Kellogg-Briand Pact and why was it important?
  • What were Middletowners especially concerned about?

  

Chapter 24 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What were Herbert Hoover’s beliefs about the role of the federal government in society?
  • What was the U. S. economy like in the years before the Great Depression?
  • What were the causes of the Great Depression?
  • What happened on Black Thursday, October 24, 1929?
  • What was the relationship between the stock market crash and the Great Depression?
  • Why were the Balkans called the “powder keg of Europe”?
  • What was the Harley-Smoot Tariff of 1930?
  • What was Hoover’s idea of the proper role of the government to the economy called?
  • In 1929, unemployment was 3%x—what was it by 1933?
  • What was Hoover’s response to the Stock Market Crash?
  • How did Hoover attempt to combat the Great Depression?
  • Why did Hoover oppose direct federal relief to the poor?
  • What was the Emergency Relief Division of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation?
  • What did the Bonus Marchers of 1932 demand?
  • What best describes Hoover’s handling of the Bonus March?
  • What best describes Franklin D. Roosevelt as a presidential candidate in 1932?
  • What were Roosevelt’s first acts as president?
  • What was the Agricultural Adjustment Act?
  • In Butler v. the United States, what did the Supreme Court rule?
  • What was the National Recovery Administration?
  • Why did the Supreme Court declare the National Recovery Administration illegal?
  • What best describes the impact of the Great Depression on families?
  • Who were the Scottsboro Nine?
  • How did the Great Depression affect race relations?
  • Which statement best describes the Hispanic experience during the Great Depression?
  • Which statement best describes the experience of white women during the Great Depression?
  • What was the Civilian Conservation Corps?
  • What did radio priest Father Charles Coughlin advocate?
  • What did Senator Huey Long of Louisiana advocate?
  • What was the Congress of Industrial Organizations?
  • What was the Works Progress Administration?
  • How did the WPA and the Social Security system differ?
  • Who was the Republican Party’s candidate for president in 1936?
  • What was the Fair Labor Standards Act?
  • What was FDR’s most dramatic political miscalculation during his presidency?
  • What was the Wagner Act?
  • What caused the “Roosevelt Recession”?
  • What did novels like Erskine Caldwell’s Tobacco Road, John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath, and Richard Wright’s Native Son portray?
  • Who was Mary McLeod Bethune?
  • What was the typical Mexican American response to New Deal policies?
  • What was the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934?
  • Which New Deal program was Frances Perkins most clearly associated with?
  • What was the long-term impact of the New Deal?

  

Chapter 25 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What did Franklin Roosevelt do upon becoming president?
  • What did Franklin Roosevelt do when a radical government in Cuba came to power?
  • In 1938, when Mexican president Lázaro Cádenas nationalized foreign-owned oil properties, what did FDR do?
  • What best describes FDR’s handling of Latin American affairs before World War II?
  • How did the U. S. respond to Japan’s seizure of Manchuria?
  • What led to Senator Gerald P. Nye’s congressional investigation of U. S. entry into World War I?
  • What was the Neutrality Act of 1935?
  • What was the U. S. response to Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia in 1935?
  • What was the Neutrality Act of 1937?
  • In 1929, unemployment was 3%x—what was it by 1933?
  • What was indicated by the congressional response to Japan’s sinking of the American gunboat, Panay, in 1937?
  • How did Britain respond to Hitler’s demand for Czechoslovakian territory?
  • What did the U. S. State Department do in response to Nazi persecution of the Jews?
  • What was the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of 1939?
  • What was the Neutrality Act of 1939?
  • What happened in Europe in the spring of 1940?
  • What did Wendell Willkie do during the presidential election of 1940?
  • What was the Lend-Lease Bill?
  • What was FDR’s response to the German invasion of the Soviet Union?
  • What was the Atlantic Charter?
  • What were Japanese-American relations like prior to the bombing of Pearl Harbor?
  • What was going on in Japanese-American relations at the time Pearl Harbor was bombed?
  • During the war, what was popular American opinion like toward Japanese Americans?
  • What was Executive Order #9066?
  • What happened to the New Deal with the outbreak of World War II?
  • What region of the U. S. benefitted most from defense-based prosperity during the war?
  • What happened to union membership in American during the war?
  • What happened in labor relations in America during the war?
  • What was the Smith-Connally War Labor Disputes Act?
  • What was the result of the 1944 presidential election?
  • What was the GI Bill?
  • What was the work experience of women in industry during the war?
  • What was Executive Order #8802?
  • What best describes the African American soldiers experience during the war?
  • What did the Zoot Suit Riots of 1943 reveal about racial tension in America?
  • What was American military strategy during the war?
  • What was Operation Torch?
  • What was the nature of the early military engagements between the U. S. and Japan?
  • What happened at Guadalcanal Island?
  • What happened at the Tehran Conference of 1943?
  • What was the “popular front”?
  • Why did tension between the U. S. and Soviet Union grow as the war wound down?
  • What did the Soviets agree to at the Yalta Conference?
  • What was the Battle of the Bulge?
  • What was the 1943 and 1944 U. S. military strategy in the Pacific?
  • What was the Potsdam Declaration?
  • How many people were eventually killed at Hiroshima with the atomic bomb?

Chapter 26 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • Who was the “Father of Containment”?
  • What did most Americans hope for after the end of World War II?
  • By early 1946, what was the outlook of most Soviet officials?
  • What best describes Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech?
  • On what did the U. S. base its postwar credits and loans?
  • What did George F. Kennan, American chargé d’affaires in Moscow, believe about the Soviets?
  • After the war, how did Democrats and Republicans end the possibility of a return to isolationism?
  • Where did the British and Americans first confront the Soviets after World War II?
  • In March 1947, where did President Truman ask Congress to send U. S. military aid?
  • What was the Truman Doctrine?
  • How did the Soviet Union respond when the U. S. presented a plan to integrate Europe economically?
  • What was the Marshall Plan and how did the Soviets respond to it?
  • What led to the Soviet blockade land traffic to and from Berlin?
  • What was the focus of U. S. foreign policy from 1945-1950?
  • What was President Truman’s position on the creation of the state of Israel?
  • Who won the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating an end to the 1948 Arab-Israeli War?
  • What happened in China shortly after World War II?
  • How did the U. S. respond to the Communist victory in China?
  • What did the National Security Council of the United Nations recommend in 1950?
  • What was the situation in Korea when World War II ended?
  • What were the conditions leading the U. S. to send troops to Korea?
  • Why did President Truman fire General MacArthur?
  • By 1952, what was the opinion of most Americans about the war in Korea?
  • By 1951, why did George Kennan object to the growing number of American commitments aboard?
  • What was President Truman’s outlook on labor after World War II?
  • What happened to many blue collar workers after the war?
  • What was the Taft-Hartley Act?
  • What did President Truman do relevant to advancing civil rights in America?
  • What happened during the 1948 presidential election?
  • What did southern Democrats do in 1948 when their party endorsed civil rights?
  • In 1949, what happened to the proposed creation of a national health care system?
  • How did President Truman respond to the charge that there were Communists within the U. S. government?
  • What was the House Un-American Affairs Committee?
  • Who was Alger Hiss?
  • How did the Supreme Court respond to the “Red Scare”?
  • What was the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg spy case?
  • What had Senator Joseph McCarthy accomplished prior to embarking on his anti-Communist crusade?
  • Who was Joe McCarthy and what impact did he have in American history?
  • Why did President Truman withdraw from the presidential race in 1952?
  • What happened to U. S. suburbs after World War II?
  • What was the experience of minorities in America immediately after World War II?

  

Chapter 27 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What was Dwight David Eisenhower’s “modern republicanism”?
  • What was the “termination policy”?
  • Why did the successful launching of a Soviet satellite create panic across the U.S.?
  • What accounted for Eisenhower’s popularity during the 1952 campaign?
  • What led to the discrediting of Senator Joseph McCarthy’s anti-Communist crusade?
  • What was the basis for the Eisenhower “New Look” foreign policy?
  • During the 1950s, what did most developing countries associate the West with?
  • What did the CIA specialize in under Allen Dulles?
  • What caused U. S. problems in Iran during the 1950s?
  • What was President Eisenhower’s response to the 1956 attack by Israel on Egypt and the subsequent seizure of the Suez Canal by Britain and France?
  • To what Middle Eastern country did Eisenhower commit troops to protect a pro-American government in 1958?
  • How did the U. S. respond when the new president of Guatemala began nationalizing land owned by United Fruit Company?
  • What happened in Cuba in 1959 when Fidel Castro led a revolution?
  • What was the Geneva Agreement?
  • Prior to 1954, what nation dominated Vietnam?
  • What happened in Vietnam during Eisenhower’s presidency?
  • What did Georgii Malenkov call for after the death of Joseph Stalin?
  • What caused the Soviets to withdraw from a planned summit meeting in 1960?
  • What was the emphasis of American child-rearing in the 1950s?
  • How did U. S. auto manufacturers try to boost sales during the 1950s?
  • What percentage of middle class American women worked for wages in 1960?
  • Why did most Americans justify the suppression of beatniks and homosexuals in the 1950s?
  • What were the themes in books like The Lonely Crowd (1950) and Catcher in the Rye (1951)?
  • What was portrayed in the film Rebel Without a Cause?
  • What did American Sociologists believe about “rock ‘n roll”?
  • What was the Baghdad Pact?
  • What alternatives did the U. S. have to avoid a nuclear solution to international problems?
  • What happened to the focus of the Cold war after 1953?
  • What was the Eisenhower Doctrine?
  • What did American multinational corporations do during the 1950s?
  • What is true about American white collar workers by 1956?
  • How did unions respond to changes in the labor market during the 1950s?
  • What was Brown v. Board of Education (1954); what did the NAACP argue during the case; and what was the Supreme Court ruling in the case? (two questions)
  • What role did President Eisenhower play in the 1957 effort to desegregate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas?
  • What sparked the 1955-1956 Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott?
  • Who did the Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott bring to national prominence?
  • What best describes the Eisenhower Administration’s role in the civil rights movement?

 

Chapter 28 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What did Stokeley Carmichael do with the SNCC?
  • How did John F. Kennedy offset his liabilities as a presidential candidate in 1960?
  • What accounts for JFK’s victory in the 1960 election?
  • How did JFK secure the black vote in 1960?
  • How did JKF construct his staff and cabinet?
  • What did the government call the U. S. program to send a manned flight to the moon and back?
  • How did African Americans challenge segregated lunch counters in 1960?
  • What did JFK accomplish his first two years in office?
  • What was the freedom rider incident and why was it important?
  • What ended the freedom rider movement?
  • What happened to the first African American student admitted to the University of Mississippi?
  • What was Martin Luther King’s Birmingham campaign?
  • What happened during the civil rights movement’s 1963 March on Washington?
  • What was JFK’s defense strategy called?
  • How did JFK propose stopping the spread of communism?
  • What was the Alliance of Progress?
  • What was Operation Mongoose?
  • How did JFK respond to the discovery of missile sites in Cuba?
  • After the Cuban Missile Crisis, what happened to U. S. – Soviet relations?
  • How did JFK handle the Vietnam War?
  • What did the Warren Commission conclude?
  • How did Lyndon Johnson expand JFK’s domestic agenda?
  • What was the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
  • What did LBJ’s War on Poverty emphasize?
  • What was Volunteers in Service to America?
  • What was the nature of the 1964 presidential election?
  • What was the major goal for African American civil rights leaders in the 1960s?
  • What eliminated the poll tax?
  • What was the Voting Rights Act of 1965?
  • What items were at the4 top of LBJ’s domestic agenda?
  • Why did race riots break out in the mid-1960s?
  • What immediately preceded the Watts Riot of 1965?
  • What was the focus of most “black power” advocates?
  • Who founded the Black Muslims?
  • In what city was the Black Panther organization founded?
  • How did whites respond to the growing race riots and black militancy of the 1960s?
  • What was the argument of Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique?
  • What was the central criticism of student activists on college campuses during the 1960s?
  • Why did Students for a Democratic Society maintain?
  • Who was Timothy Leary?
  • What event symbolized the power of counterculture values to promote cooperation and happiness?
  • Which African American leader worked hardest to define what “Black Power” meant?

  

Chapter 29 Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What statement best characterizes the activities of the Supreme Court in the 1960s?
  • What took place in 1963 in Crystal City, Texas?
  • The term “Chicano” became popular among Mexican-Americans who advocated what?
  • What brought Hispanic-American leader César Chávez to prominence?
  • What the experience of American Indians like in the 1960s?
  • What did American Indian Movement activists to do to dramatize the plight of Indians?
  • What was the Mann Doctrine for Latin America?
  • What did President Johnson choose not to escalate the Vietnam War in 1964?
  • What was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
  • What was Operation Rolling Thunder?
  • What was General William Westmorland’s plan to win the Vietnam War?
  • What was the Ho Chi Minh Trail?
  • What was the 1968 Tet Offensive?
  • How did the Johnson Administration respond to growing domestic protest over Vietnam?
  • Why was the Tet Offensive considered a victory for the North Vietnamese?
  • What individual’s announcement that there would be no victory in Vietnam led President Johnson to lament, “I have lost Mr. Average Citizen”?
  • What did President Johnson’s circle of advisers conclude following the Tet Offensive?
  • What happened in the 1968 New Hampshire Democratic primary?
  • When Lyndon Johnson announced that he would not seek an additional term, what did he also announce?
  • Which 1968 Democrat candidate for president was closest to President Johnson’s foreign and domestic policies?
  • What was the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago like?
  • Which presidential candidate in 1968 appealed most strongly to Americans upset by civil rights legislation and antiwar protests?
  • What best described the outcome of the 1968 presidential election?
  • Who was Henry Kissinger and why was he important?
  • How did Kissinger and President Nixon try to restructure the Cold War?
  • What was the policy of Vietnamization?
  • What was the Nixon Doctrine?
  • What happened in the Vietnamese village of My Lai in 1968?
  • What sparked student unrest at Kent State University in 1970?
  • What was the reaction of the U. S. Senate when the last troops returned from Cambodia?
  • What did National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger think would happen to the South Vietnamese government after the 1973 cease-fire?
  • What was the War Powers Act?
  • How did the Vietnam War finally end?
  • In 1971, why did China want better relations with the U. S.?
  • When a socialist-Marxist government came to power in Chile, what did the U. S. do?
  • What government agency did President Nixon play a key role in forming?
  • What was the name of the new economic phenomenon emerging in 1971?
  • During the 1960s, which region of the U. S. experienced growth because of its economic opportunities and climate?
  • What impact did President Nixon have on the composition of the Supreme Court?
  • Why did many Democrats object to the 1972 nomination of George McGovern for president?
  • What were “Plumbers” supposed to investigate?
  • Which White House staffer implicated President Nixon in the Watergate cover-up?
  • Who did the 1974 Watergate grand jury name as an “unindicted co-conspirator” in the Watergate cover-up?
  • What did César Chávez do when traditional labor protests failed to work?

  

Fall Final Exam Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What was the major goal of the explorers who followed Columbus?
  • What was the Columbian Exchange?
  • How did Europeans obtain slaves from Africa?
  • How did Calvinists believe happiness on earth could be obtained?
  • What was the Treaty of Tordesillas (1493)?
  • What did Bartholomé de las Casas maintain?
  • What was explorer Henry Hudson looking for?
  • Who did the French in Louisiana make alliance with?
  • What was the greatest problem for the Jamestown settlers during the early period of settlement?
  • What saved Jamestown from failure as a colony?
  • What was the fate of many Virginian indentured servants?
  • How did the Massachusetts Bay Colony differ from the Virginia Colony?
  • How did England’s elite class view the American colonies?
  • What were the main points of John Locke’s political essays?
  • What were the beliefs of Jonathan Edwards?
  • How did British Prime Minister William Pitt handle the French and Indian War differently than his predecessors?
  • What were the results of British victory in the Seven Years War?
  • What was the first direct tax imposed on the colonies?
  • What did Edmund Burke argue in the House of Commons regarding colonial policy?
  • What did Thomas Paine argue in Common Sense?
  • What was a flaw in General Howe’s strategy for using colonial Loyalists?
  • What happened at the Battle of Saratoga (1777)?
  • Who was Benedict Arnold and why was he important?
  • What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1783) ending the Revolutionary War?
  • In supporting ratification of the Constitution, what did Alexander Hamilton hope to see accomplished?
  • What were the Articles of Confederation?
  • What was the Three-Fifths Compromise?
  • How did Thomas Jefferson and James Madison differ from Alexander Hamilton?
  • What were the Alien and Sedition Acts and how did Republicans perceive them?
  • In what way did Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture facilitate the Louisiana Purchase?
  • How far did the Lewis and Clark Expedition get?
  • How did the Louisiana Purchase impact Jefferson’s Indian policy?
  • What was James Wilkinson’s role in the “Burr Conspiracy”?
  • In what way did the War of 1812 catch the U. S. unprepared?
  • How did Napoleon’s defeat in 1814 impact America?
  • What happened at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend?
  • Other than poor roads, what other factor made commercial activity difficult in the West?
  • Who was Henry Miller Shreve and what did he accomplish?
  • What did the Adams-Onís Treaty accomplish?
  • What was the Missouri Compromise?
  • Was slavery really profitable?
  • Which choice best describes small white farmers in the South?
  • What was a typical slaveholder like?
  • What were antebellum planters like?
  • What was the preaching style of Charles G. Finney like?
  • What is the indirect message of the slave folktale about Br’er Rabbit and  Br’er Fox?
  • Who was Nat Turner and why was he important?
  • Why did Andrew Jackson’s opponents call themselves “Whigs”?
  • What were Stephen F. Austin’s efforts to settle Texas like?
  • What were the underlying causes of westward migration?
  • What was Manifest Destiny?
  • How was the Oregon border dispute with England settled?
  • What happened at the 1848 Seneca Falls, New York Convention?
  • Why was Harriet Beecher Stowe a significant literary figure?
  • What was the Gadsden Purchase?
  • Why did John Brown attack the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry?
  • When the Civil War began, what was the biggest challenge faced by both president Lincoln and Davis?
  • What position did the British take during the American Civil War?
  • Why was the Battle of Shiloh important?
  • Who was General George B. McClellan and what was he like as a military leader?
  • What was the Emancipation Proclamation?
  • What did the end of slavery force Southerners of both races to do?
  • What was Lincoln’s “Ten-Percent Plan”?
  • What was the Thirteenth Amendment?
  • What were “Black Codes” passed by Southern legislatures in late-1865 and 1866?
  • What was the Fifteenth Amendment?

  

Spring Final Exam Dual Credit U. S. History

Review Concepts

 

  • What was the Homestead Act of 1862 designed to do?
  • How did Andrew Carnegie help transform the organizational structure of U. S. manufacturing?
  • What was the Social Darwinist philosophy of Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner?
  • How did John D. Rockefeller revolutionize the American petroleum industry?
  • What is true about most late-19th century immigrants who arrived in America?
  • What was the “new middle class” of the late-19th century?
  • What best describes the construction of western railroads?
  • What best describes the development of mining in the post-Civil War American West?
  • What city dominated cultural and economic activity in the late-19th century West?
  • What was Social Gospel?
  • What was the political platform of the Populists?
  • How did Booker T. Washington respond to the movement toward segregation and disenfranchisement?
  • What was the Progressive Movement?
  • Why did Margaret Sanger attract national attention in 1916?
  • Who was W. E. B. Du Bois and why was he important?
  • Why did Woodrow Wilson finally withdraw U. S. troops from Mexico?
  • What was the Zimmerman Telegram?
  • What was the Creel Committee?
  • What most accounts for Henry Ford’s success as an automobile manufacturer?
  • What was the Dawes Plan?
  • What was the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
  • What were the causes of the Great Depression?
  • What were the first acts of Franklin D. Roosevelt as president?
  • What was the Wagner Act?
  • Why did Gerald P. Nye conduct a congressional investigation to explain the entry of America in World War I?
  • What was the Neutrality Act or 1937?
  • What was the Lend-Lease bill?
  • What was the “Iron Curtain” speech given by Winston Churchill?
  • What was the Truman Doctrine?
  • What did President Truman do to advance the cause of civil rights?
  • What did Fidel Castro to in Cuba in 1959?
  • How did both Eisenhower and Truman believe that communism’s spread could be halted?
  • What accounts for the popularity of Eisenhower in the 1952 presidential campaign?
  • How did John F. Kennedy offset his liabilities as a candidate when he ran for president in 1960?
  • What was the main factor leading to Kennedy’s victory in the 1960 presidential election?
  • How did Kennedy secure the black vote in 1960?
  • Why did President Lyndon Johnson choose not to escalate the Vietnam War in early-1964?
  • How did the Johnson Administration respond to growing domestic protest over Vietnam?
  • Who was Henry Kissinger?
  • What sparked student unrest at Kent State University in 1970?
  • What did President Johnson’s circle of advisers conclude following the Tet Offensive?
  • Which White House staffer implicated President Nixon in the Watergate cover-up?
  • Who did President Jimmy Carter broker a peace treaty between in the “Camp David Accords”?
  • What was Roe v. Wade and why was it a landmark Supreme Court decision?
  • What was the emphasis of Ronald Reagan’s presidential campaign of 1980?
  • What was Jerry Falwell and what was the “Moral Majority”?
  • What did the Clinton campaign of 1992 stress?
  • Who industry is centered in the “Silicon Valley”?
  • In the 1992 presidential election, who was H. Ross Perot and why was he important?
  • What member of George W. Bush’s cabinet opposed the use of force to remove Saddam Hussein from power?